Protect The NHS Save Lives
Coronaviruses (CoV) known to cause disease in humans and animals are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases. Some of them including four (human coronaviruses 229E, NL63, OC43 and HKU1) only infect the upper respiratory tract and cause relatively minor symptoms. But, there are three coronaviruses (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV2) that can attack the lower respiratory tract and cause pneumonia, which can be fatal. SARS-CoV2, the closest relative among human coronaviruses is SARS-CoV which has 79% genetic similarity between the two. SARS-CoV2 which is most similar to bat coronavirus and the pangolin coronavirus, is a new strain that was discovered in 2019 and has not been previously identified in humans and that can affect your lungs and airways causing COVID-19 disease.
The COVID-19 viral disease has started in Wu Han of China in December 2019 and spread globally. It was a pandemic, officially announced by the World Health Organization on Wednesday 11th March 2020. It spread to more than 200 countries and over 300,000 people were infected with over 16, 000 death by that time. More than 3 million people were infected with over 200,000 fatality by the end of April. The epicenters of the pandemic shifted from Wu Han China to Europe, then to the US North America and now it movs to Brazil, South America.
COVID-19 is highly contagious, which means it spreads easily from person to person. It spreads mostly from person to person through close contact or from droplets that are scattered when a person with the virus sneezes or coughs. People who have the virus are most contagious when they’re showing symptoms. Coronavirus is airborne virus which means that it is mainly transmitted through air by both small dry particles and as well as larger liquid droplets. It is possible that someone with the coronavirus infection without showing symptoms can transmit the virus, though it is less common. Also there is a possibility that the virus can be transmitted via touching virus-contaminated surfaces and then touching your mouth or nose, though it is not main way of spreading.
The incubation period for COVID-19 is between 2 to 14 days after exposure. On infection, the median incubation period is approximately 4–5 days before symptom onset , with 97.5% of symptomatic patients developing symptoms within 11.5 days. COVID-19 symptoms start as mild symptoms and gradually get worse over a few days for many people. The main symptoms include fever, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue. Other symptoms are achiness, nasal congestion, sore throat and running nose.
At the point of hospital admission, patients with COVID-19 typically exhibit a fever and dry cough; less commonly, patients also experience difficulty in breathing, muscle and/or joint pain, headache/dizziness, diarrhoea, nausea and the coughing up of blood. Within 5–6 days of symptom onset, SARS-CoV-2 viral load reaches its peak — significantly earlier than that of the related SARS-CoV, where viral load peaks at about 10 days after symptom onset. Severe COVID-19 cases progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), on average around 8–9 days after symptom onset.
The cause of death of COVID-19: In COVID-19 aggressive inflammatory responses result in damage to the airways. Therefore, disease severity in patients is due to not only the viral infection but also the host response. Severe COVID-19 cases progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) characterized by difficulty in breathing and low blood oxygen level. ARDS may lead directly to respiratory failure, which is the cause of death in 70% of fatal COVID-19 case.Besides, the vast release of cytokines by the immune system in response to the viral infection and/or secondary infections can result in a cytokine storm and symptoms of sepsis that are the cause of death in 28% of fatal COVID-19 cases. In these cases, uncontrolled inflammation inflicts multi- organ damage leading to organ failure, especially of the cardiac, hepatic and renal systems.
What to do?
Follow Government rules and seek advice from NHS helpline
Use the 111 coronavirus service, if
you feel you cannot cope with your symptoms at home
your condition gets worse
your symptoms do not get better after 7 days
Why is it good to drink ginger tea during coronavirus outbreak?
Ginger can help your defence system.
Macrophages a type of defence cells in the body play a dual role in host defence. They act as the first line of defence by mounting an inflammatory response to antigen exposure and also act as antigen presenting cells and initiate the adaptive immune response. They are also the primary infiltrating cells at the site of inflammation. Inhibition of macrophage activation is one of the possible approaches towards modulating inflammation. Ginger, an herbal product with broad anti inflammatory actions was shown that it regulates immune function by inhibiting macrophage activation. A study has shown that ginger ginger improves on cytotoxicity induced by paraben (p-hydroxybenzoic acid) on red blood cells (RBC) in vitro from healthy adult human beings (25-30 years).
Ginger can help protect human bronchial epithelial cells.
Traditionally, ginger is used as an antiinflammatory drug. A recent study tested the effect of ginger extract in inflammation of human bronchial epithelial cells. They found that ginger extracts can reduce inflammatory substances production and suggested that distinct ginger compounds could be used as antiinflammatory drugs in respiratory infections.
Ginger reduces inflammatory and oxidative stress
This review investigated the effects of ginger supplementation on markers of inflammatory and oxidative stress. They evaluated the effects of ginger on some inflammation markers including serum CRP (C-reactive protein), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha), IL-6 (interleukin-6), PGE2 (prostaglandin E2), TAC (total antioxidant capacity), and MDA (malondialdehyde). The results of this study indicated a statistically significant effect of ginger on serum CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, TAC, and MDA levels following ginger supplementation in compared to the controls. Also, the effects of ginger on serum PGE2 was marginally significant. They suggested that ginger supplementation has a significant effects on serum inflammatory and oxidative stress markers.
Tripathi S et al BMC Complement Altern Med. 2008 Jan 3;8:1. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-8-1.
Asnani V, Verma RJ. Acta Pol Pharm. 2006 Mar-Apr;63(2):117-9.
Podlogar JA, Verspohl EJ. Phytother Res. 2012 Mar;26(3):333-6. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3558. Epub 2011 Jun 23.
Jalali M et al Phytother Res. 2020 Mar 8. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6638. [Epub ahead of print]
Why is it good to eat garlic during coronavirus outbreak?
The benefits of garlic to health have been indicated for centuries and the wide variety of effects garlic preparations and extracts has been reported are beneficial and useful. Recently garlic extract Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. A review assessed the most recent experimental results. They suggested that garlic boosts the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation.
Arreola R et al J Immunol Res. 2015;2015:401630. doi: 10.1155/2015/401630. Epub 2015 Apr 19.
Should you do acupuncture, if you have COVID-19?
No. You shouldn’t do acupuncture, if you have symptoms of COVID-19. Acupuncture can’t kill COVID-19, but there is a possibility of increasing the spreading of the virus due to its high contagion nature.
Wishing everyone stay safe and well.
Research shows that diabetes is a risk factor for the progression and prognosis of COVID-19.
COVID-19 is a novel virus which has lots of unknown factors. Is diabetes a risk factor affecting the progression and prognosis of COVID-19? A total of 174 consecutive patients confirmed with COVID-19 were studied. They found that patients with diabetes were at higher risk of severe pneumonia, release of tissue injury-related enzymes, excessive uncontrolled inflammation responses and hypercoagulable state associated with dysregulation of glucose metabolism. Moreover, serum levels of inflammation related biomarkers such as IL-6, C-reactive protein, serum ferritine and coagulation index, D-dimer, were significantly higher in diabetic patients compared with those without. This suggests that patients with diabetes are more susceptible to an inflammatory storm eventually leading to rapid deterioration of COVID-19. The conclusion is that diabetes should be considered as a risk factor for a rapid progression and bad prognosis of COVID-19.
Guo W Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2020 Mar 31:e3319. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.3319. [Epub ahead of print]
Covid-19: risk factors for severe disease and death
Study has shon that Covid-19 risk factors include older age, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, hypertension, and cancer which are related to increased risk of death.
A meta-analysis of eight studies including 46 248 patients with laboratory confirmed covid-19 indicated that those with the most severe disease were more likely to have hypertension, respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease.
The world’s most advanced centre for disease and emergency analytics is where Imperial’s scientists are leading the response to the coronavirus.
J-IDEA, the Abdul Latif Jameel Institute for Disease and Emergency Analytics, headquartered at Imperial College London, was only setup last year to rapidly respond to emergencies such as pandemics, extreme climate events, and natural and humanitarian disasters. Not long after it was launched, the first cases of the novel Coronavirus, COVID-19 from Asia was reported.
Imperial’s MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis (MRC-GIDA) is leading the College’s COVID-19 epidemiological response, working closely with institutes across the School of Public Health under the umbrella of J-IDEA, as the Imperial College COVID-19 Response Team.
Since January the teams have responded rapidly to the emerging coronavirus threat and have analysed the continuously changing data in real-time, and produced more than a dozen reports on the pandemic, which have informed governments and health services around the world.
Study showed that sunlight exposure increases COVID-19 recovery
A study investigated the correlation between sunlight exposure and Covid-19 recovery statuses in Jakarta, Indonesia. They found that the number of recovered patients is correlated significantly with sunlight exposure and suggested that sunlight exposure was associated with recovery from Covid-19.
Asyary A & Veruswati M
Sci Total Environ. 2020 Apr 27;729:139016. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139016. [Epub ahead of print]
A unique mutation of new coronavirus was discovered, and it could be the end of the pandemic
SARS-CoV-2 is the virus that causes the illness COVID-19. Viral mutations are a normal part of a virus’s evolution and can alter the severity of the disease they cause.
A team of scientists at the Arizona State University (ASU), United States conducted a research on coronavirus RNA sequences. They discovered a mutation in the genetic code of SARS-CoV-2 which is 81 letters in the virus’s genome had been deleted.
The deletions that the ASU team identified in SARS-CoV-2 affect parts of the code that produce a particular protein. The scientists believe that this protein is key to helping SARS-CoV-2 evade human defenses, allowing it to replicate quickly.
This finding is interesting because the nature of the mutation suggests it may have an association with a less severe form of the disease.
This reflects changes scientists saw in the 2003 SARS outbreak, as previous research has suggested that similar deletions reduced the ability of the coronavirus at the heart of the 2003 SARS outbreak to replicate.
What did they try to constrain the Spanish flu in 1918?
Spanish flu pandemic that swept the globe in 1918 was caused by the deadly strain of influenza. It tended to strike those aged between 20 and 30, with strong immune systems.
The actions taken by governments and individuals to prevent the spread of infection have a similarity to today’s COVID-19.
The first recorded victim of Spanish flu was found in May 1918 when the country was at war. In 1918, there were no treatments for influenza and no antibiotics to treat complications such as pneumonia. Hospitals were quickly overwhelmed. There was no centrally imposed lockdown to contain the spread of infection, although many theatres, dance halls, cinemas and churches were closed, in some cases for months; Pubs, which were already subject to wartime restrictions on opening hours, mostly stayed open. The Football League and the FA Cup had been cancelled for the war, but there was no effort to cancel other matches or limit crowds, with men's teams playing in regional competitions, and women's football, which attracted large crowds, continuing throughout the pandemic. The major duty was still carrying on.
Streets in some towns and cities were sprayed with disinfectant and some people wore anti-germ masks, as they went about their daily lives. They believed fresh air could protect them from the viruses and they took 15-minute walks to breathe in fresh air every morning and night. Other advices include ‘avoid street crowd; don’t take train, bus and taxi; don’t get tired; don’t speak anyone who has signs of cold’.
There was a more deadly second wave of the disease, in the autumn of 1918. By the end of the pandemic, the death toll in Britain was 228,000, and a quarter of the population are thought to have been infected.