The occipitofrontalis

The occipitofrontalis muscle consists of two parts:

The occipital parts is the occipitalis muscle. This is the muscle that covers parts of the skull at the back of the head. It arises from the upper neck along the base of the skull (occipital bone) and innervated by the facial nerve. Its contraction draws the skull back and contributes to the headaches.

 

The frontal parts are called frontalis muscle. These two muscles are connected by epicranial aponeurosis. The frontalis is continuing from the aponeurosis and is inserted in the fascia of the facial muscle and in the skin above the eyes and nose. This muscle is facial expression muscle and it draws the scalp back to raise eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead.

The temporal muscle

The temporal muscle is a broad fan shaped muscle on each side of the head covering much of the temporal bone. It is one of the muscles involved in jaw movement and is the most powerful chewing muscle of the temporomandibular joint. You can see and feel the muscle contracting while the jaw is clenching and unclenching. The muscle is innervated by a branch of trigeminal nerve. This muscle is likely to be involved in jaw pain, teeth pain, facial pain ,migraines and headaches. Dental work and chewing gum can lead to trigger points in the temporal muscle. These trigger points can cause pain in the side of the face in temple region and the pain can radiate to the face, eye brow, jaw, upper teeth, head and neck. 

Masseter muscle

One of the strongest mastication muscles is masseter muscle. It consists of two heads: superficial head starts from the maxillary process of the zygomatic bone and the anterior two thirds of the inferior border of the zygomatic arch and inserts into the angle of the mandible and inferior half of the lateral surface of the ramus of the mandible; the deep head starts from the posterior third of the lower border and from the whole of the medial surface of the zygomatic arch and inserts into the upper half of the ramus of the mandible. This muscle involves jaw movement. It could be a source of toothache and tooth hypersensitivity to stimuli such as heat and cold. Also the pain over the eyebrow, ear and sinusitis can be caused by masseter muscle.

The trapezius muscle

Trapezius muscle: the muscle can cause you headache, neck and shoulder pain.

You may experience headache, neck and shoulder pain and feel aching and burning from the base of your skull to between your shoulder blades. One of the first muscles to cause this pain is trapezius. This is a broad triangular muscle at neck and upper back, one of the largest superficial muscles at the back. It attaches to the base of the skull and extends down to the neck, the upper back until mid back; laterally it inserts to the shoulder blades. There are three functional regions to the muscle: the Upper, middle, and lower trapezius, and each region has its own function: upper region moves the shoulder blades and support the arms; the middle region retracts the shoulder blades and the lower region rotates and depresses the shoulder blades.

The Gluteal muscles

 

The gluteal muscles are a group of three muscles making up the buttocks: the glutes maximus, gluteus medius and the gluteus minimus. They originate from the back of the pelvic bone ilium and sacrum and end on the thigh (femur).

The largest and the most superficial of the three gluteal muscles is the gluteus maximus. It makes up a large portion of the shape and appearance of the hips. The functions of the muscles are extenson, abduction, external and internal rotation of the hip joint.

Gluteus maximus starts from the posterior gluteal line of the inner upper ilium crest, the posterior surface of the lower part of the sacrum and the side of the coccyx, aponeurosis of the erector spinae, sacrotuberous ligament and the fascia covering the gluteus medius. The gluteal maximus go downward and lateralward and insert into iliotibial band and glutealtuberosity. It extends and laterally rotates the hip and extends the trunk. Gluteus maximus injury is a common source of the low back pain. Trigger points are often presents at the originated fibers. The pain can radiate to the thigh, knee and even foot like sciatic pain.

Erector spinae muscles

The erector spinae muscles are a group of muscle and tendons lying along the side of the spine. They arise from the anterior surface of the tendon attached to the medial crest of the sacrum, spinous processes of the lumbar and last two thoracic vertebrae, the supraspinous ligament, the innerpart of the iliac crest and the lateral crest of the sacrum. They extend up through lumbar, thoracic and cervical regions. This group of muscle include iliocostalis, longissimus and spinalis. The erector spinae makes the back straight and rotate the back from side to side. Injury, strain chronic inflammation to these muscles may cause back spasm, pain and stiffness. 

The quadratus lumborum

The quadratus lumborum is a deep muscle at the back that runs from the last ribs and transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae to the top of the pelvis. It is quadrilateral in shape and forms posterior abdominal wall. When one side of the muscle contract, it flexes the spine laterally; when both side of the muscles contract, it extends the spine; it helps expiration and inhalation; and when it contracts on one side, it elevates pelvic bone. If trigger points are present in this muscle, it is a common source of low back pain. This is often caused by overuse, poor posture, stress, strain and tension from twisting, bending or lifting improperly etc.

 

The psoas major muscles

The psoas major muscles are the deep muscles by the sides of the spinal column. They go downwards to the pelvic bone and end at lesser trochanter of the femur. Illacus muscles start from the interior side of the pelvic bone. The psoas major and the illacus muscles join together and form the iliopsoas. These muscles connect the core and lower limbs and they flex the hip joint, bend the spine forward and laterally and raise the spine from supine position. The pain and trigger points related to iliopsoas is at the low back and upper thigh. Walking and standing upright can be painful, if there are trigger point present in these muscles.

Abdominal muscles

The rectus abdominis muscles are a pair of long flat muscles lie vertically along the middle line of abdomen. Each muscle is divided by narrow bands of tendon into four muscular bodies. It originates from the edge of the pubis bone and thepubic symphysis in the pelvis and ends at the inferior edges of the costal cartilages of the fifth through seventh ribs and at the xiphoid process of the sternum. The rectus sheath is a covering connective tissue surrounding the rectus abdominis muscles where the internal and external oblique muscles attach. The linea alba a thick mass of white fibrous connective tissue is in the mid line of the abdomen and joins the two rectus abdominis together. The important function of rectus abdominis muscles is to flex the spine when they contract. Contraction of the abdomen results in increased pressure within the abdominopelvic cavity and is useful to push substances out of the body during exhalation, defecation, and urination. It helps delivering a baby. If there are trigger points present in these muscles, you could feel the pain at the abdomen, lower and mid back region. The symptoms include pain at the low abdomen, period pain, stomach cramping, heart burn chest pain, indigestion, nauseas, vomiting bloating, genital pain, bladder problem, low and mid back pain etc. 

 

Transverse abdominis muscle is the deepest muscle on the front and side abdominal wall. It lies between the rib cage and pelvic bone. It starts from the back thoracolumbar fascia, from the top inner surface of the lower six ribs, from the bottom front of the iliac crest and inguinal ligament and it ends at the front abdominal midline called linea alba. It is a very important core muscle in compressing the abdomen, providing thoracic and pelvic stability and supporting abdominal visera. It maintains good posture and help to deliver a baby for pregnant women. Trigger points in transverse abdominis could contribute to the abdominal pain and low back pain. 

 

The external abdominal oblique muscles are a pair of muscles that lie on the lateral and anterior sides of the abdominal wall. They are broad, thin and on the top layer of the abdominal muscles. They start from ribs 5-12 and end at the midline of the abdomen, pubis and iliac crest of the hip bones. Contraction of this muscle makes lateral bend and rotation of the spine, flexes the spine and also pulls the chest downwards and compress the abdominal cavity.

 

The internal abdominal oblique muscles lie on the lateral and anterior sides of the abdominal wall just underneath the external abdominal oblique muscles and above the transverse abdominal muscle. It bends the spine forward and bring the shoulder of the side forward and it also bend the spine sideway and rotates it. It compresses abdominal contents and assists digestive process and breathing. If trigger points are present in these muscles, the pain can be felt in following area, in the side, the waist area, the groin area, the low abdomen, across the upper back below shoulder blades, across the low back just above hips, stomach pain, testicle pain, pelvis pain bladder pain. 

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